youth quiz of world's most important events -JARGON in the future there will be far more livelihoods than jobs- english language including teachers, bankers, professions and leaders havent caught up with this yet- hence we too use word jobs interchangably except in
specific livelihood references like these 1 2? why shouldnt every youth have a youth ali or efounder in china 1 2 ?
.Sample of world record jobs profiles and 13 most energetic world trade maps

#BR6 USA, Ca

Elon Musk

Jerry Yang

Bejos & Leonis

Quadirs & BRAC

Berners Lee & MIT

Kissinger

#BR5 W Euro

Prince Charles

Pope Francis

Soros

Danny Alexander

BBC nature

#BR4 E Euro

Lichtenstein

(blockchain)

Schwab IR4

#BR3 Russia

Gorbachev

#BR2 S Asia

Sir Fazle Abed

Nilekani

CK Prahalad decesased

#BE1 Far East

CEO soiftbank

Mahbubani

Moon Jae-In

#BR12 UN+..........................................

Guterres ; Jack Ma ,

Melinda Gates; heads of UNCTAD, UNHABITAT and UNGA; Jim Kim WB

#BR11 Arctic Circle........................

#BR10

Latin America,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Paulo Freire

#BR9 Africa.........................

#BR8 Med Sea

#BR7 Mid East & Stans................................

Sheikha Moza

Queen Rania

Founding family Dubai Supercity

#BR0 China Xi Jinping , Jin Liquin, Leaders of baidu ten cent (Ma see BR12)


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download this map to choose 13 vantage points to play BeltRoadImagineering from and to swap notes on which regions world records jos creators you can linkin.
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welcome to world record jobs and the most valuable curricula in the mobile world- for example do you know how to BeltRoadImagineer -start by choosing a continent or an ocean that entrepreneurs depend on to trade worldwide q1 where are the biggest ports and do your smallest and most enterprising peoples have access to them? -raesons for this question over 90% of worldwide gtrade is shipped and thats the greenest and most economical mode - question 2 now that you have a map of ports are railRoads designed for access - example only a few years ago 26 nations on one continent found that their railways did not connect because they used different gauges- the "dryport" was invented- this is designed to maximise efficient unpacking and repacking of containers between 2 different trains. when you think of Roads as overland grips you can ask are cable water and energy pipes also optimally co-loctaed across a contiments Roads 3) wherever neigboring nations join in BRI the most exciting opportunities are "bridging" ones wehgere 2 places havent previously be connected- its smart to invite youth to celebrate every bridging opportunity - to share languages, cultures, foods, often youth will find winj-win trades where one side of the bridge has plenty of one resource but not enough of another- q4 back in sept 2015 the united nations announced 17 most exciting goals ever -ones youth will need to collaborate around if our spceius is to survive let alone thrive- ask whether a neigbouring natiion has some solutions your communities havent tried out- there are so many livelihood education opportunitie and mobile apps - in march 2019 the head of the Un has asked the greatest sustainability education experts he can find to make a report of digital cooperation opportunities- some neighbors are in for special treats for example if you bodre bangladesh girls there have found the most exciting digital banking model to end poverty, they have built the cheapest village health service, and the lowest cost but happiest schooling systems for those up to age 11.. as you swap belt rioad mapping exercise with worldwide e-friends get ready to tell them what commy=unity solutions your place is great at and what solutins you are searching for..
.rsvp isabella@unacknowledgedgiant.com. .2022-2015 .2015-2008. 2008-2001.. 2001-1994..1994-1987..1987-1980.1980-1973 1973-19661966-19591959-19521952-1945
worldwide.. .sustainability goals unite nations USA and developed nations subprime world devaluing youth opportunities in west 9/11 in wast china enters wto.; worldwide smart mobile to be universal. first access to solar in mobile phones among villagers in third of world with no electricity grids.appearance of www in 1989..new vision of computers = personal networking.fifth of humans in china start trading worldwide for first time in 110 years after refusing to trade opium with brits 1860 joy to fear: moon landing oil future shocks1966-19591959-19521952-1945
.girl empowering bangladesh, & global partners of edu for youth 1 .first meet between girl's 2 most hopefule networks brac's bkash and Ma's ant finance .tech wizard partners of brac develop girl's and the world's largest cashless bank bkash Yunus Nobeled ...Sir Fazle Knighted.. 2001-1994..1994-1987..1987-1980.... 1973-19661966-19591959-19521952-1945
.china and oriental world trade routes. .100+ national leaders see china as more real host of sustainability goal race than any other single nation .tech wizards prevent china's economic growth being stalled by wall streets attempt to collapse global markets and youth's sustainability livelihoods- digital culture is navigated by xi jinping so that by 2017 china is creating 5 million startups mapped across supercioties- a digital belt road inside china matching his launch of physical Belt Roads wherever nations want long-term win-win trading partnerships and youth sustainability china suddenly decides to let youth linkin 3 internet ecosystems BAT with ecommerce and mobile cash celebrated as greatest millennials innovations .. 2001-1994..1994-1987..1987-1980.... 1973-19661966-19591959-19521952-1945

UN Guterres changing refugees world 1 2 3 4 5

2 views of what happened between 1500 and 1946:

It was good that some people (about a fifth of the human race) found ways to be up to 200 times more productive than ever before

It is tragic that the fifth did this in ways (slavery, colonization, seizing others natural resources) that excluded the four fifths

Common sense as well as natures evolutionary laws Both ways unite round one urgent vision- we must celebrate every way of changing value chains that includes the four fifths

World Record Jobs Researchers feature known way of changing value chains to maximise youth livelihoods and sustainability generation

1 Bangladesh shows us the elast controversial celebration of all – it changes disaster relief, development, ais and charity so the poorest village mothers built their own community services- they did this between 1972 and 1996 with no electricity and solely with trust in girl power; from 1996 tech partners including mobile and solar have helped them design the most extraordinary leapfrog models

celebrate technologists applying big-data-small wizardry to celebrate enterprise sustaining those with the least (or facing the most severe climate or other sustainability crises) – eg alumni circles of jack ma

.help map future of china as world largest friendly nation since 1977

BRI.school :: join our linkedin survey 100 world record jobs creators..rsvp chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk - post-colonial model in which nation's people grow exponentially through win-win trades with other peoples? (special feature muhammad yunus
If you are interested in youth livelihood co-creation help us blog guides to inter-regional world records jobs creators BR0 china BR1 rest far east and asean and pacific south including OZ and NZ BR2 S Asia including Bangladesh BR3 russia BR4 east euro BR5 west euro BR6 north america BR7 stans and middle east and suez or gulf facing BR8 med sea facing BR9 africa BR10 latin america BRUN Uniting Nations BRIC InterCity- InterCommunity (see goal 11 maps especially by UNHabitat's new leader former female mayor of Penang)
Be prepared each couplet is a very different journey - for example BR0-BR2 -almost half the world's people need sustainability from this region which is perhaps 10% of the planet's land and already mixes the most and least advances tech societies on earth. In the middle of mediating this are the world's poorest women as well as hopefully the most heroic technologists - Nilekani? Ma? Abed-Quadir-Gates?
GLOBAL JACK MA: Which of 10 regions beyond China Can Jack Ma learn with most given his urgent worldwide collaborations such as ... MA fall018 survey ma blockchain -china poverty thinktanks and who else rsvp isabella@unacknowledgedgiant.com

MA0 Fintech for billion poorest? Fintech for SMEecommerce markets; ecommerce training with chinas major belt road partners – understand regional clusters eg SCO, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Belt Road summit may 2019

MA1 Road to olympics- celebrating community participation markets that commerce alone cant reach BR1 Japan2020; BRO Beijing2022; BR5 Paris2024; BR1 Korea2018
MA2 By March 2019 UN report for Guterres with Melinda Gates on digital collaboration
MA3 Forming Alibaba global business school includes training big data small coders from developing nations- main scout head of UNCTAD- but how do we help ma scout in countrues head of unctad doesnt know (eg round south asia)
MA4 15 billion dollar investment in worldwide DAMO academy of IR4 technologies including AI- ones most impacting world to 2025 -keeping open rather than us race to patent-scouts include jerry yang- the world economic forum is a key partner in IR4 and its also related to how chinese government analyses lead tech sectors to 2025- ie china maps to be world tech leader by 2025
M4a nb mostofa attend varney summit where elearning was discussed for refugees- china is ahead on edutech in so many ways -eg instead of amazon alexis it is getting teacher assistants into classrooms- as jack says these know facts more than teachers- this is why examining children on facts is retarding them from future
M4b Jack is also on the un eminent committee and on grordon browns’ education commission – while the commission’s 30 national leaders nit officially connected with UN- brown is un envoy for education
MA5 Ying Lowrey also connects many partnerships within Tsinghua main public servant training university- gateway to beoijing startup hib linked with all supercities
MA6 Jack also chairs busininss men club of billionaires who want their market to sustain china- it is posible to go tjrough with yig rfeview every market futures purspoe maximise to poverty aleviation
MA7 Jack has said from olympics on he will focus on taking education as the main challenge- unless we take education outside classroom more than half of youith both unemployable and not aliogned to being the sustainability generation

Jack has many framgmeetd education charities- including those working in Taobao village education – also one of his obscure foundations a sponsor of wise at Beijing
>Most summers jack organizes a summit in Hangzhou where people like jim kim tirn up regulary – 2017 womens empowerment – 2016 philanthopy or social business- in october world bank issue its main 2018 report - chosen theme livelihoods
In 2017 China had 5 million startup- many were associated with the 3 main ecosystems Alibaba , tencent, baidu- all ecosystems expected to brief jinping -usually there is annual meeting at tsinghua where public servants meet tech and other business leaders
Jinping asked jack to host the china G20 hangzhou- jack spent lot of time with relevant citizen group – women youth sme green finance- these get reactivated when g20 host interested – germany wasnt- we assume franciscan argentina this november is; we assume japan is and part of road to Olympics and anyhow japan remains Alibaba founding investor
Canada has been one of the movers of g20 and trudeau has partnered jack a lot – one reason why jack and trudeau demonstrate 3000 person one day training masterclass www.gateway17.com MAY 2019 deadline update 100 nations collaboration Belt Road 2 -China wished to understand which clusters of nations want to partner on which sustainability goals- jack is a leading scout of this- his big advantage is big data anayusis applied to small enterprise and redesigning value chains- it would seem that ma, gates and brac are all watching for national partners in big data small -one of the lose ends is Nilekani billion person identity- we need help from tech experts to understand what Alibaba owns that can be key – eg in south asia it still owns the most common type of browser uses cheaper mobiles- in china jack’s fintech and ecommerce keeps ahead on g5 or most advance digital infrastructure- bkash is an interesting blend being targeted at mpt3 and 2?- please note we need to understand how the world’s greatest fintech experts at ant finance and bkash interface with all of jack ma’s and brac partners other interests

World Record Book of Jobs Creation - chapter 1 version 7.18

Thank you to the world's greatest job creators Sir Fazle and Jma- and the greatest conflict resolution mapmakers Xi Jinping, Antonio Guterres and Pope Francis
For the quarter of the world's population living in s asia, job creating independence has been a long time coming.

In 1860 , James Wilson's intervention laster less than a year - the founder of the economist dying from lack of oralk reydratiion; gandhi's 40 year attempt 1906-1946 ended with his assassination

Bangladesh' 46 year progress now depends mainly on friends and alumni of Sir Fazle Abed- the greatest livelihood creator for the world's poorest women; fortunately brac's story is an exponential rising game of two halves- to 1996 having no electricity or anything other than person to person community building to 1996; selectively choosing the best digital partners from 1996 as brac became understood as the world's most collaborative ngo provided you really wanted to innovate solutions that integrated the ultra poorest or indeed those at ultra risk from personal or nature's safety

Over the same period China has also seen corresponding exponential development. But with the huge difference- as early as 1972 the chinese diaspora were the 3rd strongest financial network in the world; they were delighted to inward invest by replicating the win-win trading ways they had already proven across superport islands like HK
singapore, taiwan

1966 Bangladesh sort of became a leapfrog pilot test for China which quickly offered order of magnitude m,ore funding to mobile telecoms and mirosolar. But still it wasnt until 2008 that China fully trusted 3 mega internet ecosystems the BAT (story 2008 - story 2018 china and bangla marry their greatest human tech innovators of girl end poverty)

Up to moon landing, opportunities to innovate were unvenly distributed geographically- eg up to half of the world's peoples had no access to electricity grids
Practical Innovators : value train trasnsformation empowering small eneterprises and community Jobs Creation
In 2018 Jack Ma first took 20% share of Sir Fazle's Bkash part of the world's largest NGO BRAC
Sir Fazle Abed had been job creating for the poorest villagers in Bangladesh (without electricity or other grids : roads, water, telecoms) since 1972 redesigning such markets as finance, agricultural produce, health, education, crafts ; from 1996 he had slowly started to attract some of the greatest tech partners bringing digital connectivity through combination of mobile telecoms and micro solarpower. 1999 brought a university and the start of strategic partners in selected nations worldwide


valuetrue.com: rsvp chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk- wanted co-editors of the world record book of jobs creators- you should love travel guides

and be curious why jobs creation not in compass of Guiness Book of records -more it helps to have youth's love other peoples nations/cultures/arts = Olympics spirit

these are the most exciting times to be alive.............................

homethe world's most valuable lessonwhy bat isn't fag world record jobs creatorswrjc sir fazle abedaudrey cheng and girls who codewrjc jack mawrjc xi jinpingwrjc pope francisdoes your nation understand belt road mapping


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edu7a.jpg..

links: WRJC E4 Moza: WISE@ (related E2 Sir Fazle E7 Mahbubani W6 Macron W2 Guterres E10 Pres Ghana)
WRJC E3 MA OPEN: Gateway17; DamoCity HanG20 MaOlymics 1 2 . alibabauni.com leapfrogtv.news quarterbilliongirls.com

worldtrademap17.jpg edu7555.jpg

..
China has 20 neighbors and near neighbors so we map world record jobs creators along its win-win trading happily help educators (or congress) in any place translate maps their communities can explore- hwats a map worth 1

(cities inside) China- : NEWS :NorthEastWestSouth

North 3aPolar Belt & Russia NE; 3b Polar Belt (Mongolia) Russia 3c Polar Belt Nordica 3d Landlocked NW neighbors including SCO members

East 1a-greater bay HK*Cross-straits Taiwan 1b Korea*Japan; China 6a bering st alaska-canada-w.coast usa; 10a Mexico & Central am 10b panama , 6b texas, florida, caribbean 6c other us states 10c other latin america inclding Brazil BRICS

W 7a ws China-pakistan-Gulf suez-9a djibouti-ethiopia=egypt 9b kenya .. 9c more africa-eg s africa brics
8 to med sea 7b landlocked w asia4/5 Europe E/W eg China Express

South 1c AseanLandbridge*Asean Pacific 2a China-India-Brics S2b China-India-east-Bangladesh-Asean S2C China India-West (eg pakistan towards gulf)

vote for favorite interviews of world's top job creator -: 1
g20 student union ; curricula of 17 goals ; rough links 2 list

Tuesday, December 1, 1981

Manmonan Singh #BR2

1 first to propose new development banking - did this in brics forum though this has now become the big debate of all belt road mapping - including sd-generation submaps of infrastructure , green tech, culturetech and edu tech

2 had a huge row with muhammad yunus for not explaining that microcredit worked by changing markets bottom up before dealing out loans -india suffered from terrifying ipos of microcredit at worst possible time - this microfinance mis-education destroyed lot of bottom up progress in india just when manmohan singh most needed it; what would be useful to know is whether singh is an adviser to modi on how not to ever get trapped like this again as india's innovation of billion person universal identity becomes one of the great big data challenges of our times

3 had around 1991 taken india out from its great protectionism wall but sadly not with eg grounded female and societal partners that china had celebrated removing its great wall - see notes from brookings book "India Transformed" published 2018 on 25 years 1991-2016 on 6% compound growth of india

4 had been at cambridge corpus christi doing his thesis 3 years after my father - this meant that singh didnt get direct mentoring from keynes but still was tutored by those influenced by keynes view that only economc system exponentially lock in what futures will be possible for a places youth - these tutors include the spiffing joan robinson - see a letter of hers footnoted


singhs thesis was how to design system so that there are no underclasses inside or across a nations border; singhs family had suffered as refugees caused by partitioning of india so as a young man he knew all about mapping underclasses and hurriedly drawn borders of exiting colonial powers

clearly if gutteres wise@UNGA sept 2018 is going to have maximum impact for refugees education and tech we need to empower girls student union networks and open spaces to get the stories of new dev banking and edutech correct all across china- india- bangladesh- myanmar- corridor through to asean- which of guterres 15 eminent people in addition to sheikha masa really understand this huge challenge for media and the student class 2017-18 before aiib 2018 mumbai argentina g20 brics south africa wise@UNGA and world bank at indonesia to id but 5 summits that make 2018 sustainability's most critical year  www.43weeks.com 


chris




I quoted Joan Robinson’s “Open Letter from a Keynesian to a Marxist.” It’s well out of print, and I think it deserves to be online in full, so here it is.
According to John King’s History of Post-Keynesian Economics [2002: p. 50], this originated as a letter to Ronald Meek, a Marxian economist of Kiwi origin, incidentally from my home town of Wellington. It was published by the Students’ Bookshop at Cambridge in a pamphlet called On Re-reading Marx, along with a couple of other Robinson pieces, in a small edition which sold out, she later said, in seventeen years. I got it from her Collected Economic Papers, Volume IV.
I like to see it, against the title, as a stern letter among comrades, rather than a dismissal of one school by another. Robinson says here she has Marx in her bones, and she means it. She is one of those people who moved progressively to the left with age (even unfortunately becoming enthusiastic about Mao’s Cultural Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s), and this letter of 1953 finds her halfway along the road. In the 1930s she had mocked Marxian critics of Keynes’s General Theoryfor not wanting to believe capitalism’s unemployment problem could be solved with the right policy. Here, she has evidently changed her mind. She had begun her career as a Marshallian, would witness first-hand Keynes’s miracle at Cambridge in the 1930s and become something of a Saint Paul, only to eventually prefer and promote the Marxish Michal Kalecki’s presentation of the theory of effective demand, which had been inspired by the reproduction schema of Capital, Volume II. Marx was very much in the air of the 1930s Cambridge Economics department, in spite of Keynes’ dismissiveness, thanks to the trio of Kalecki, Piero Sraffa and Maurice Dobb.
Because of these three and Robinson herself, what has come to be called “post-Keynesianism” today owes as much to Marx as it does to Keynes. (Though some sections of it have much the same relationship to the General Theory and the Treatise on Money as the Zombie Marxists do to Capital and the Grundrisse.) This scene is a great place to start for those looking to broaden their horizons from what I call Zombie Marxism, and there is no better guide than Joan Robinson. A first-rate theorist, she also always wrote for a wider public in the tradition of Keynes, in contrast to the abstruse Kalecki and Sraffa. As you will see she could be awfully patronizing — to Marxists, she always acted like a worldly and sophisticated older sister, in the best and worst ways. She took her definitions of “dialectics” and “metaphysics” from the positivist dictionary (for both, it simply reads “nonsense.”) But the basic message here, about learning to think about economics for yourself, is hard to argue with.

An open letter from a Keynesian to a Marxist

I must warn you that you are going to find this letter very hard to follow. Not, I hope, because it is difficult (I am not going to bother you with algebra, or indifference curves) but because you will find it so extremely shocking that you will be too numb to take it in.
First I would like to make a personal statement. You are very polite, and try not to let me see it, but, as I am a bourgeois economist, your only possible interest in listening to me is to hear which particular kind of nonsense I am going to talk. Still worse – I am a left-wing Keynesian. I was drawing pinkish rather than bluish conclusions from the General Theory long before it was published. (I was in the privileged position of being one of a group of friends who worked with Keynes while it was being written.) Thus I was the very first drop that ever got into the jar labelled ‘Left-wing Keynesian’. Moreover, I am quite a large proportion of the contents of the jar today, because so much of the rest has seeped out of it meanwhile. Now you know the worst.
But I want you to think about me dialectically. The first principle of the dialectic is that the meaning of a proposition depends on what it denies. Thus the very same proposition has two opposite meanings according to whether you come at it from above or from below. I know roughly from what angle you come to Keynes, and I quite see your point of view. Just use a little dialectic, and try to see mine.
I was a student at a time when vulgar economics was in a particularly vulgar state. There was Great Britain with never less than a million workers unemployed, and there was I with my supervisor teaching me that it is logically impossible to have unemployment because of Say’s Law.
Now comes Keynes and proves that Say’s Law is nonsense (so did Marx, of course, but my supervisor never drew my attention to Marx’s views on the subject). Moreover (and that is where I am a left-wing Keynesian instead of the other kind), I see at a glance that Keynes is showing that unemployment is going to be a very tough nut to crack, because it is not just an accident — it has a function. In short, Keynes put into my head the very idea of the reserve army of labour that my supervisor had been so careful to keep out of it.
If you have the least little pinch of dialectic in you, you will see that the sentence ‘I am a Keynesian’ has a totally different meaning, when I say it, from what it would have if you said it (of course you never could).
The thing I am going to say that will make you too numb or too hot (according to temperament) to understand the rest of my letter is this: I understand Marx far and away better than you do. (I shall give you an interesting historical explanation of why this is so in a minute, if you are not completely frozen stiff or boiling over before you get to that bit.)
When I say I understand Marx better than you, I don’t mean to say that I know the text better than you do. If you start throwing quotations at me you will have me baffled in no time. In fact, I refuse to play before you begin.
What I mean is that I have Marx in my bones and you have him in your mouth. To take an example — the idea that constant capital is an embodiment of labour power expended in the past. To you this is something that has to be proved with a lot of Hegelian stuff and nonsense. Whereas I say (though I do not use such pompous terminology): ‘Naturally — what else did you think it could be?’
That is why you got me so terribly muddle up. As you kept on proving it, I though that what you were talking about was something else (I could never make out what) that needed to be proved.
Again, suppose we each want to recall some tricky point in Capital, for instance the schema at the end of Volume II. What do you do? You take down the volume and look it up. What do I do? I take the back of an envelope and work it out.
Now I am going to say something still worse. Suppose that, just as a matter of interest, I do look it up, and I find that the answer on my old envelope is not the one that is actually in the book. What do I do? I check my working, and if I cannot find any error in it, I look for an error in the book. Now I suppose I might as well stop writing, because you think I am stark staring mad. But if you can read on a moment longer I will try to explain.
I was brought up at Cambridge, as I told you, in a period when vulgar economics had reached the very depth of vulgarity. But all the same, inside the twaddle had been preserved a precious heritage — Ricardo’s habit of thought.
It isn’t a thing you can learn from books. If you wanted to learn to ride a bicycle, would you take a correspondence course on bicycle riding? No. You would borrow an old bicycle, and hop on and fall off and bark your shins and wobble about, and then all of a sudden, Hey presto! you can ride a bicycle. It was just like that being put through the economics course at Cambridge. Also like riding a bicycle, once you can do it, it is second nature.
When I am reading a passage in Capital I first have to make out which meaning of c Marx has in mind at that point, whether it is the total stock of embodied labour (he does not often help by mentioning which it is — it has to be worked out from the context) and then I am off riding my bicycle, feeling perfectly at home.
A Marxist is quite different. He knows that what Marx says is bound to be right in either case, so why waste his own mental powers on working out whether c is a stock or a flow?
Then I come to a place where Marx says that he means the flow, although it is pretty clear from the context that he ought to mean the stock. Would you credit what I do? I get off my bicycle and put the error right, and then I jump on again and off I go.
Now, suppose I say to a Marxist: ‘Look at this bit — does he mean the stock or the flow?’ The Marxist says: ‘C means constant capital,’ and he gives me a little lecture about the philosophical meaning of constant capital. I say: ‘Never mind about constant capital, hasn’t he mistaken the stock for the flow?’ The the Marxist says: ‘How could he make a mistake? Don’t you know that he was a genius?’ And he gives me a little lecture on Marx’s genius. I think to myself: This man may be a Marxist, but he doesn’t know much about geniuses. Your plodding mind goes step by step, and has time to be careful and avoids slips. Your genius wears seven-league boots, and goes striding along, leaving a paper-chase of little mistakes behind him (and who cares?). I say: ‘Never mind about Marx’s genius. Is this the stock or is it the flow?’ Then the Marxist gets rather huffy and changes the subject. And I think to myself: This man may be a Marxist, but he doesn’t know much about riding a bicycle.
The thing that is interesting and curious in all this is that the ideology which hung as a fog round my bicycle when I first got on to it should have been so different from Marx’s ideology, and yet my bicycle should be just the same as his, with a few modern improvements and a few modern disimprovements. Here what I am going to say is more in your line, so you can relax for a minute.
Ricardo existed at a particular point when English history was going round a corner so sharply that the progressive and the reactionary positions changed places in a generation. He was just at the corner where the capitalists were about to supersede the old landed aristocracy as the effective ruling class. Ricardo was on the progressive side. His chief pre-occupation was to show that landlords were parasites on society. In doing so he was to some extent the champion of the capitalists. They were part of the productive forces as against the parasites. He was pro-capitalist as against the landlords more than he was pro-worker as against capitalists (with the Iron Law of Wages, it was just too bad for the workers, whatever happened).
Ricardo was followed by two able and well-trained pupils — Marx and Marshall. Meanwhile English history had gone right round the corner, and landlords were not any longer the question. Now it was capitalists. Marx turned Ricardo’s argument round this way: Capitalists are very much like landlords. And Marshall turned it round the other way: Landlords are very much like capitalists. Just round the corner in English history you see two bicycles of the very same make — one being ridden off to the left and the other to the right.
Marshall did something much more effective than changing the answer. He changed the question. For Ricardo the Theory of Value was a means of studying the distribution of total output between wages, rent and profit, each considered as a whole. This is a big question. Marshall turned the meaning of Value into a little question: Why does an egg cost more than a cup of tea? It may be a small question but it is a very difficult and complicated one. It takes a lot of time and algebra to work out the theory of it. So it kept all Marshall’s pupils preoccupied for fifty years. They had no time to think about the big question, or even to remember that there was a big question, because they had to keep their noses right down to the grindstone, working out the theory of the price of a cup of tea.
Keynes turned the question back again. He started thinking in Ricardo’s terms: output as a whole and why worry about a cup of tea? When you are thinking about output as a whole, relative prices come out in the wash — including the relative price of money and labour. The price level comes into the argument, but it comes in as a complication, not as the main point. If you have had some practice on Ricardo’s bicycle you do not need to stop and ask yourself what to do in a case like that, you just do it. You assume away the complication till you have got the main problem worked out. So Keynes began by getting money prices out of the way. Marshall’s cup of tea dissolved into thin air. But if you cannot use money, what unit of value do you take? A man hour of labour time. It is the most handy and sensible measure of value, so naturally you take it. You do not have to prove anything, you just do it.
Well there you are — we are back on Ricardo’s large questions, and we are using Marx’s unit of value. What is it that you are complaining about?
Do not for heaven’s sake bring Hegel into it. What business has Hegel putting his nose in between me and Ricardo?
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What Everybody Needs to Know First About Economics
Economics designs peoples futures but this depends on what logics are analysed- here are the logics The Economist used in the early 19080s when it discussed how the net gneration could be the most productive time for youth
  
A nation/place cannot sustain growth unless its capital is structured so that family's savings are invested in their next generation's productivity.Norman Macrae's 1954 book on The London Capital Market provides chapter and verse. Historically it was timely as London's industrial revolution had planted most of the developed world's laws and financial instruments. Futurewise this book became a source for Norman's forty years of leadership challenges including 3000 editorials. THese became branded in the 2 genres of entrepreneurial revolution and future history of the net generation genre which he focused on from 1972. They script in practical details most of the changes that economists would need to make to historic rules if globalisation is not to collapse the worldwide financial system of 2010s
Norman framed his writings on future purposes huan most wanted around the idea that The Net Generation to 2024 would face change on a scale never previously experienced by our human race. To prevent risks and celebrate job creating opportunities Norman proposed in his 1984 book (The 2024 Report) that the world should unite around youth's most exciting millennium goal. He explained why economics would design the most popular futures if the goal was chosen as racing to end poverty everywhere. Reasons included: its possible, its exciting, it creates jobs post-industrial generation will need to design around collaborative technology, it can empower youth to joyfully unite cultures as we become borderless (more connected than separated), it aligns economics principles with nature's exponentially (compounding) rules of evolutionary selection which are community-up and open.
 download more profiles of 100 collaboration leaders of 2010s = youths most productuive decade 

We are shocked how few people know of the main findings of the renowned economist Maynard Keynes- increasingly only economics riles the world and the greatest risk to the future working lives of our children comes from elderly macroeconomists who hire themselves out to the biggest who want to get bigger.


Historically when faulty systems of macroeconomists ruined civilisations they fell one by one. But Einstein took Keynes logic further and hypothesised that the first generation to become more connected than separated by technology would be subject to a final exam. Now if we let erroneous macroeconomists rule whole continents of nations will collapse.


By 1976 my father (Norman macrae) -probably the last student of economics mentored by Keynes-  was writing at The Economist why the next half century would see the net generation tested - he called upon the genre of Entrepreneurial Revolution (ER) networkers to sort out the greatest  innovation challenge economics - and so the human race - will ever face .

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