1 From the start of the 20th century Gandhi sustained the worldwide movements asking how free peoples of india – the quarter of the world – were to be in designing machines for their development needs.
2 Gandhi directly asked the similar question for peoples of colored skin in south Africa- both Indians who had connected trades between britannia superports of calcutta , Bombay, and Durban (which remained of huge strategic leverage until suez canal. -see map
3 Indirectly he was asking the analogous question for all 6 tenths of human beings living on the continent of asia who had been locked out of industrial development – the north sea empires- primarily Britain, Netherlands France had colonized almost the whole of the south coastal belts of the old worlds of asia and Africa.
4 it can be instructive to revisit adam smith’s key question- how will engines be financed and marketed around the globe at pivotal turning points in history
1760-1775 – the first 16 years of his glasgow u colleagues james watt steam engines
1843-1860 when james Wilson started the economist to renew the debate prompting queen Victoria to wonder whether commonwealth instead of slave trading was a more valuable way to rule empire
Gandhi’s 20th century questioning- whee a first missed opportunity was 1913 – census divides muslim, hindhi; capital moved from Calcutta to delhi – this explains why india’s independence was misunderstood at birth of united nations in 1945; not reviewed at key opportunities – start of 1960s moon race and 4 redevelopment technologies ; ironically when Bangladesh became independent 50 years of fazle abed’s work was never adapted to india in spite of its gandhian and montessori elements blended with Calcutta lab’s innovation of oral rehydration which became core to women building rural village networks in Bangladesh and china
By the time manmohan singh helped to open up india to world trade, india’s post industrial development was led by rich capitalists while the huge bureaucracy of Indian parliament and cultural divisions failed to integrate gandhi’s talisman of ending poverty. Ironically india’s Nilekani led the world’s development of telecentres leveraging india’s mathematical and English speaking skills out of bangalore. But india didn’t have the good fortune of one of its superstar English speaking teachers visit seattle at the birth of ecommerce and in the 11th year of code for personal computer networking and 7th year of worldwide webbing -see part 2 of the life stories of jack ma, fazle abed and George soros